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The Savages 2007 Torrent

Road construction of the Redwood National Park highway bypass resulted in a large accidental infusion of fine sediments into pristine streams in Prairie Creek State Park, California, during an October 1989 storm event. This incident provided a natural experiment where we could measure, compare, and evaluate native stream amphibian densities as indicators of stream ecosystem stress. We employed a habitat-based sampling design to assess the impacts of these sediments on the densities of aquatic amphibians in five impacted streams by comparing them with densities in five adjacent, unimpacted (control) streams. Three species were sampled in numbers sufficient to be informative: tailed frogs (Ascaphus truei, larvae), coastal (Pacific) giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus, paedomorphs and larvae), and southern torrent salamanders (Rhyacotriton variegatus, adults and larvae). The only other species detected in protocol was one sub-adult northern red-legged frog (Rana aurora).

The Savages 2007 Torrent


Amphibians were sampled by using a random systematic design based on stream length and ratios of primary mesohabitat types along each stream (Welsh et al. 1997). This allowed for stream mesohabitat types (pool, riffle) to be sampled in proportion to occurrence. Within each selected mesohabitat unit, we systematically placed one or more amphibian sampling units (belts) based on habitat length, placing one belt for every 10 meters of habitat. We sampled a total of 267 belts in 179 mesohabitat units, with 93 habitat units (137 belts) in the impacted streams and 86 habitat units (130 belts) in the unimpacted streams. We captured a total of 540 amphibians; larval and paedomorphic individuals of the coastal giant salamander were the most common (n = 296), followed by larval tailed frogs (n = 205), and larval and adult southern torrent salamanders (n = 39).

Densities of the three species varied by impact and mesohabitat type. The coastal giant and southern torrent salamanders showed significant differences for impact in all cases the densities in unimpacted streams were greater (F=3.95, P=0.0820 and F=4.93, P=0.0572 respectively), however the tailed frog did not vary significantly by impact (F=2.06, P=0.1888). The tailed frog and southern torrent salamander showed significant differences among mesohabitat types (F=11.38, P=0.0001 and F=2.67, P=0.0519 respectively). There was also a significant interaction between impact and mesohabitat type for the tailed frog (F=3.73 P=0.0145).

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90. Emel, S.**, D. Olson, L.L. Knowles and A. Storfer. 2019. Comparative landscape genetics of two endemic torrent salamander species, Rhyacotriton kezeri and R. variegatus: implications for forest management and species conservation. Conservation Genetics. 20: 801-815

66. Takahashi, M.K., J.M. Eastman**, D. A. Griffin, J. Baumsteiger, M.J. Parris, and A. Storfer. 2014. A stable niche assumption-free test of ecological divergence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 76: 211-226.65. Emel, S.L.** and A. Storfer. 2014. Characterization of 10 microsatellite markers for the southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus). Conservation Genetics Resources 6: 881-882.

James McDougall is lecturer in the history of Africa at the School of Oriental and African Studies (Soas) in London. He was formerly assistant professor of history at Princeton University. He is editor of Nation, Society and Culture in North Africa (Routledge, 2003) and author of History and the Culture of Nationalism in Algeria (Cambridge University Press, 2006). Also by James McDougall in openDemocracy:"Islam(s) and politics: post-traumatic states in Algeria" (10 July 2007) Who we are and where we come from France's "inner-city" banlieues (suburbs) hit the headlines again in November 2007. New and disturbing levels of violence saw gunshots fired at police by rioters, injuring one officer, in Villiers-le-Bel north of Paris after two teenagers were killed when their motor-scooter collided with a police car. While the banlieues' problems are economic before all else, they also involve the enduring cultural consequences of France's imperial past and the way that past is understood in its contemporary, post-colonial society.

Also in openDemocracy on France's colonial inheritance in Africa:Nelcya Delanoe, "Morocco: a journey in the space between monarchy and Islamism" (5 February 2003) Patricia Daniel, "Mali - everyone's favourite destination" (10 May 2006) KA Dilday, "Zidane and France: the rules of the game" (18 July 2006) Gérard Prunier, "Chad's tragedy" (7 September 2007) Patrice de Beer, "Indigènes: enlarging France's history" (18 October 2006) Andrew Wallis, "Rwandan rifts in La Francafrique" (14 December 2006) Patrice de Beer, "France's immigration politics" (12 February 2007) KA Dilday, "Nadia Yassine's journey" (2 August 2007)

The integration of at-risk minorities into the renewed and self-confident nation has been an essential part of this agenda. Sarkozy, after his election victory and inauguration in May 2007, has overtly sought (in an echo of George W Bush) to flag "multicultural" credentials in putting together his administration, including portfolios for high-profile, successfully high-flying "representatives" of the post-colonial migrant community: deliquency-fighting judge Rachida Dati as minister of justice, Senegalese-born Rama Yade as secretary of state for human rights at the foreign ministry, grassroots women's rights organiser Fadela Amara at the ministry of housing with responsibility for urban affairs. So although they might not have appreciated his political colour or his track record as minister, when President Sarkozy went to Africa in July-August 2007, to address the continent's young people in the capital of France's former West African Federation, there were important things to be said about France and the peoples of its former empire, their relationship in the past and their imbrication in the present, and the people concerned were prepared to listen.


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