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Background: The risk of early-onset sepsis is low in well-appearing late-preterm and term infants even in the setting of chorioamnionitis. The empirical antibiotic strategies for chorioamnionitis-exposed infants that are recommended by national guidelines result in antibiotic exposure for numerous well-appearing, uninfected infants. We aimed to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in chorioamnionitis-exposed infants through the implementation of a treatment approach that focused on clinical presentation to determine the need for antibiotics.


Methods: Within a quality-improvement framework, a new treatment approach was implemented in March 2015. Well-appearing late-preterm and term infants who were exposed to chorioamnionitis were clinically monitored for at least 24 hours in a level II nursery; those who remained well appearing received no laboratory testing or antibiotics and were transferred to the level I nursery or discharged from the hospital. Newborns who became symptomatic were further evaluated and/or treated with antibiotics. Antibiotic use, laboratory testing, culture results, and clinical outcomes were collected.

Example images from an MS tissue donor to demonstrate method used to identify sa-WM ROIs. The FLAIR image (A) and corresponding MTR image (B) are shown, along with typical MTR histograms (C) showing the slight shift to the left for the MS patient as compared to an age-matched control. After the FLAIR image is segmented into normal-appearing white matter and T2-hyperintense lesions (D), the corresponding MTR image (B) is masked (E) and the remaining voxels that fall within the normal-appearing white matter and have MTR values in the range of 90-95% of the mean for NAWM are identified as candidate sa-WM ROIs (F). sa-WM Close and Far ROIs were selected manually from these candidate regions to insure partial volume gray matter voxels were not included.

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Changes to the structure of nodes of Ranvier in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of multiple sclerosis (MS) brains are associated with chronic inflammation. We show that the paranodal domains in MS NAWM are longer on average than control, with Kv1.2 channels dislocated into the paranode. These pathological features are reproduced in a model of chronic meningeal inflammation generated by the injection of lentiviral vectors for the lymphotoxin-α (LTα) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) genes. We show that tumour necrosis factor (TNF), IFNγ, and glutamate can provoke paranodal elongation in cerebellar slice cultures, which could be reversed by an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker. When these changes were inserted into a computational model to simulate axonal conduction, a rapid decrease in velocity was observed, reaching conduction failure in small diameter axons. We suggest that glial cells activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines can produce high levels of glutamate, which triggers paranodal pathology, contributing to axonal damage and conduction deficits.

Citation: Gallego-Delgado P, James R, Browne E, Meng J, Umashankar S, Tan L, et al. (2020) Neuroinflammation in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of the multiple sclerosis brain causes abnormalities at the nodes of Ranvier. PLoS Biol 18(12): e3001008.

1.3 The IRB's four divisions, the Immigration Division (ID), the Immigration Appeal Division (IAD), the Refugee Protection Division (RPD) and the Refugee Appeal Division (RAD), are committed to providing fair proceedings to all persons appearing before them in a manner that is guided and informed by the objectives set out in section 3 of the IRPA. This guideline is intended to apply to the four divisions of the IRB.

1.5 A person's vulnerability may be due to having experienced or witnessed torture or genocide or other forms of severe mistreatment; however, it may also be due to innate or acquired personal characteristics such as a physical or mental illness, or age. What vulnerable persons appearing before the IRB have in common is their severe difficulty in going through the hearing process or other IRB processes without special consideration being given to their individual situations. Like all persons appearing before the IRB, vulnerable persons need to be treated with sensitivity and respect, but they also need to have their cases processed taking into account their specific vulnerabilities.

2.3 Persons who appear before the IRB frequently find the process difficult for various reasons, including language and cultural barriers and because they may have suffered traumatic experiences that resulted in some degree of vulnerability.Note 2 IRB proceedings have been designed to recognize the very nature of the IRB's mandate, which inherently involves persons who may have some vulnerabilities. In all cases, the IRB takes steps to ensure the fairness of the proceedings. This guideline addresses difficulties that go beyond those that are common to most persons appearing before the IRB. It is intended to apply to individuals who face particular difficulty and who require special consideration in the procedural handling of their cases. It applies to the more severe cases of vulnerability.

15.2 In all cases involving minors appearing before the ID, the IAD or the RAD, these respective divisions will consider and apply the IRB guideline entitled Child Refugee Claimants - Procedural and Evidentiary Issues, making necessary modifications in respect of any provisions in this guideline that are not relevant to the ID, the IAD or the RAD.

This book proposes that aesthetics begin not with concepts of being or semblance, but with a concept of appearing. Appearing bespeaks of the reality that all aesthetic objects share, however different they may otherwise be. For Martin Seel, appearing plays its part everywhere in the aesthetic realm, in all aesthetic activity.

In his book, Seel examines the existential and cultural meaning of aesthetic experience. In doing so, he brings aesthetics and philosophy of art together again, which in continental as well as analytical thinking have been more and more separated in the recent decades. Within Seel's framework, to apprehend things and events with respect to how they appear momentarily and simultaneously to our senses represents a genuine way for human beings to encounter the world. The consciousness that emerges here is an anthropologically central faculty. In perceiving the unfathomable particularity of a sensuously given we gain insight into the indeterminable of our lives. Attentiveness to what is appearing is therefore at the same time attentiveness to ourselves. This is also the case when works of art imagine past or future, probable or improbable presences. Artworks develop their transgressive energy from their presence as sense-catching forms. They bring about a special presence in which a presentation of close or distant presences comes about.

This part sets forth minimum standards of professional conduct for attorneys appearing and practicing before the Commission in the representation of an issuer. These standards supplement applicable standards of any jurisdiction where an attorney is admitted or practices and are not intended to limit the ability of any jurisdiction to impose additional obligations on an attorney not inconsistent with the application of this part. Where the standards of a state or other United States jurisdiction where an attorney is admitted or practices conflict with this part, this part shall govern. 041b061a72


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